Report

UNDERMINING RIGHTS

Indigenous Lands and Mining in the Amazon

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Appendices

Appendix A. Categories of Indigenous Lands in the Amazon Based on Their Legal Status.

Table A1 | Types of Indigenous Lands Included in the Spatial Analysis per Country (Classified According to Legal Status)

Country

Areas of traditional occupation and use: Officially recognized

Areas of traditional occupation and use: Not officially recognized, in process of being demarcated, or without status information

Officially recognized indigenous reservations or ‘intangible zones’

Proposed indigenous reservations

Bolivia

Indigenous territory (Territorio Indigena Originario Campesino, registered)

Request for registration or in process of registration

N/A

N/A

Brazil

Indigenous lands (identified, declared, or homologated)

No data

N/A

N/A

Colombia

Indigenous reservation (decreed)

No data

N/A

N/A

Ecuador

Community lands (registered or decreed)

Request for registration or in process of registration

Zone set aside for voluntarily isolated indigenous people

 

Guyana

Amerindian lands (decreed)

No data

N/A

N/A

French Guiana

Area of collective use right for the benefit of local communities

No data

N/A

N/A

Peru

Native communities (demarcated and registered); peasant communities

Native community in process of registration

Indigenous reservation for isolated indigenous people

Proposed indigenous reservation

Suriname

No data

Without status information

N/A

N/A

Venezuela

Indigenous lands (demarcated community)

Areas of traditional use without demarcation or self-demarcated territory

N/A

N/A

N/A = the category is not applicable to the country.Source: Based on data from RAISG 2019a, modified by WRI authors.

Appendix B. Data Sets Used in the Spatial Analysis.

Table B1 | Description of Geospatial Data Sets Used in the Spatial Analysis (Including Geographic Coverage, Source, and Notes)

Data Set

Geographic Coverage

Creator and Date of Data

Notes

Source

Indigenous lands

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador,

French Guiana,

Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

RAISG, 2019

RAISG compiles data from multiple sources that vary per country; see https://www3.socioambiental.org/geo/RAISGMapaOnline/ for complete details. Lands were categorized according to their legal recognition status (i.e., acknowledged by government/titled vs. not acknowledged by government/held under customary tenure).

Red Amazónica de Información Socioambiental Georeferenciada (RAISG). 2019c. Indigenous territories data, compiled from various sources. Available at: https://www3.socioambiental.org/geo/RAISGMapaOnline/.

Indigenous lands

Guyana

Guyana Lands and Surveys Commission, 2018

 

Guyana Lands and Surveys Commission. 2018. Amerindian Lands.

Areas of illegal mining

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

RAISG, 2018

Data were available in different geospatial formats (polygon, point, or line) that varied by country. No data were available for French Guiana, Guyana, or Suriname.

RAISG. 2018c. Illegal mining data, compiled from various sources. Available at: https://www3.socioambiental.org/geo/RAISGMapaOnline/.

Legal mining concessions

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

RAISG, 2018

Data are compiled from multiple sources that vary per country; see https://www3.socioambiental.org/geo/RAISGMapaOnline/ for complete details. Data were categorized by status (i.e., exploration, exploitation, under tender, open for bidding, suspended, or cancelled) where available. No data were available for French Guiana.

RAISG. 2018d. Mining concessions data, compiled from various sources. Available at: https://www3.socioambiental.org/geo/RAISGMapaOnline/.

Legal mining concessions

Guyana

Guyana Geology and Mines Commission, 2016

Medium-scale mineral licenses

Guyana Geology and Mines Commission. 2016. Medium-scale mineral licenses data.

Deforestation: 2000–05, 2005–10, 2010–15

All countries

RAISG, 2016

Satellite-derived deforestation data are representative of tree cover loss across three time intervals: 2000–05, 2005–10, and 2010–15.

RAISG. 2016. Deforestation in the Amazon: 2000–2015. Available at: https://www3.socioambiental.org/geo/RAISGMapaOnline/.

National natural protected areas

All countries

RAISG, 2018

RAISG organizations compiled data from multiple sources, as follows:

Bolivia (FAN): SERNAP 2015; Brazil (ISA): digitized by ISA 2019, from official documents, based on IBGE/DSG/MMA, 1:100,000; Colombia (FGA): National Registry of Protected Areas 2017; Ecuador (EcoCiencia): MAE 2018; STAGE 2018; sustainable development program of the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve and GIZ 2014; French Guiana (DEAL): DEAL 2007; Guyana (collaboration of Roxroy K. Bollers, GIS/IT Coordinator/Iwokrama International Center for Rain Forest Conservation and Development): Iwokrama 2012; Peru (IBC): Ministry of Environment (MINAM)–National Service of Natural Areas Protected by the State (SERNANP) 2018; Suriname (ACT Suriname): World Database Protected Areas (WDPA) 2006;
Venezuela (IVIC and Provita): Rodríguez, Jon Paul, Sergio Zambrano-Martínez, Maria A. Oliveira-Miranda, Rodrigo Lazo (2014); Digital Representation of Protected Natural Areas of Venezuela, IVIC and Total Venezuela S.A; Provita 2015, on the revision of Decrees 1,233 (Extraordinary Official Gazette 4,250/1991), 2,987 (Extraordinary Official Gazette 2417/1979).

RAISG. 2018e. National Natural Protected Areas data, compiled from various sources. Available at: https://www3.socioambiental.org/geo/RAISGMapaOnline/.

Sources: Based on data from RAISG 2016, 2018, 2019, Guyana Lands and Surveys Commission 2018, and Guyana Geology and Mines Commission 2016, modified by WRI authors.

Appendix C. Indicators and Questions for the Legal Reviews

Ownership

  1. Does the law define minerals?
    1. If so, how (e.g., sand, gravel, stones, gold, gemstones, etc.)?
    2. What minerals are allowed to be extracted by law?
  2. Does the law define indigenous people or/and indigenous land? If so, how is it defined?
  3. Does the law define communities and community land? If so, how is it defined?
  4. Does the law allocate ownership over minerals?
    1. Who owns the country's minerals?
      1. State
      2. Landowner
      3. Indigenous peoples/communities
      4. Public resources held in trust by the government for the people
  5. Does the law recognize indigenous/community land and customary tenure arrangements?
    1. Does it recognize lands/natural resource rights?
    2. Must customary rights be formally registered and documented with the government to be recognized?
    3. What is the bundle of rights with different types of legal recognition/titles (e.g., withdrawal, management, exclusion, alienation, and access rights)?
    4. What rights does the state retain over indigenous/community lands?

Allocation

  1. Does the law recognize rights over minerals in favor of indigenous peoples/communities on or under their customarily held/titled lands?
  2. Are the indigenous peoples/communities eligible to acquire mineral rights for subsistence and/or commercial purposes?
  3. Do indigenous peoples/communities have the right of first refusal to exploit minerals on/under their customary or titled lands when the government makes them available for extraction?
  4. Is there any established procedure to acquire mineral rights for all interested parties (including indigenous peoples/communities)?
    1. Which mechanisms are used by the government to regulate/govern minerals and their extraction/use (e.g., industrial concessions, licenses, etc.)?
  5. Do mineral rights prevail over customary/titled indigenous/community land rights when they overlap?
    1. Can the government acquire customary or titled indigenous/community lands in a compulsory manner (eminent domain) for mining purposes?
    2. Are indigenous peoples/communities obligated to lease or otherwise let miners use their customary or titled lands for mining purposes?
    3. Does the law demand compensation to be paid in favor of indigenous peoples/communities for the acquisition/use of their lands?
      1. How is it calculated (e.g., government appraisal, market rate, etc.)?
  6. Can the government establish concession blocks and allocate rights to minerals on/under customarily or titled indigenous/community lands?
  7. Are there any conditions or restrictions placed when mining on indigenous/community lands?
    1. Must miners have the approval of indigenous peoples/communities to exercise their mineral rights on indigenous/community lands?
    2. Must miners have to pay indigenous peoples/communities to exercise their mineral rights on indigenous/community lands?
    3. Must miners have to pay the government to exercise their mineral rights on indigenous/community lands?
    4. If so, is there any legal provision that states how this amount should be distributed to indigenous peoples/communities?
    5. Are indigenous peoples/communities legally entitled to any benefits from mining on their customary or titled lands (e.g., corporate social responsibility [building of schools, medical centers, etc.], share of profits, co-ownership of operations, etc.)?

Information, consultation, and consent

  1. Must the government inform and/or consult indigenous peoples/communities on the requests for allocating mineral rights on their customary or titled lands?
    1. Must the government/mining company engage indigenous peoples/communities in negotiating the mining concession agreement, contract, or license?
  2. Do indigenous peoples/communities have the right of free, prior, and informed consent over the establishment of concession blocks and/or the allocation of mineral rights on their customary or titled lands?

Protection

  1. Are there any indigenous/community lands where mining is prohibited or limited (e.g., cropped lands, sacred groves, protected areas, etc.)?
  2. Is the government legally responsible for monitoring company performance on customary or titled indigenous/community lands?
    1. What is the basis for government monitoring?
    2. Are there any legal consequences of noncompliance (e.g., revocation, fines, etc.)?
  3. Is the mining company/miner legally responsible for any damage caused by their operations on customary/titled lands of indigenous peoples/communities?
    1. Must they pay the indigenous peoples/communities for any damages?
    2. Must they pay the government for any damages? If so, must the government pay (or compensate in any way) the indigenous peoples/communities?
    3. Is there any legal obligation to adopt rehabilitation (when restoration is possible) and/or compensation (in case of irreversible damages) measures on customary/titled lands?
    4. Are there any consequences of noncompliance with the (rehabilitation/compensation) measures ordered by the government; for instance, revoking the mineral rights or applying fines to the company?
      1. If so, what happens if the miner/mining company continues with its operations? Is the government allowed to evict or halt mining operations?
  4. Do indigenous peoples/communities have authorities over legally sanctioned miners/mining operations on their customary or titled lands (e.g., evicting miners or halting mining operations if they take illegal actions or act in ways not consistent with their concession/license or any agreement/contract with the community)?
  5. Do legally sanctioned miners/mining operations (mobilized by the government) have authorities over customary or titled indigenous/community lands to exercise their mineral rights (e.g., entering onto and using indigenous/community lands)?
  6. Does the government have the authority to remove illegal miners from indigenous peoples/community lands?
    1. Does it have the authority to monitor, capture, detain, or punish illegal miners operating on indigenous peoples/community lands?
    2. Does it have the authority to take possession of their equipment and keep or destroy any confiscated minerals?
  7. Do indigenous peoples/communities have the authority to remove illegal miners from their customary or titled lands?
    1. Do they have the authority to monitor, capture, detain, or punish illegal miners operating on their customary or titled lands?
    2. Do they have the authority to take possession of their equipment and keep any confiscated minerals?

Appendix D. List of International Treaties and National Laws and Regulations Reviewed

International treaties

  • International Labour Organization, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (ILO Convention 169), June 27, 1989.
  • The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, United Nations (UNDRIP), September 13, 2007.

Bolivia

Political Constitution of the Plurinational State of Bolivia, 2007

Laws and Legislative Decrees:

  • Ley Nº 969, Ley de Protección, Desarrollo Integral y Sustentable del Territorio Indígena y Parque Nacional Isiboro Sécure–Tipnis [Law of Protection and Sustainable Development of Tipnis], August 13, 2017.
  • Ley Nº 535, Ley de Minería y Metalurgia [Mining Law], May 19, 2014.
  • Ley Nº 450, Ley de Protección a Naciones y Pueblos Indígena Originarios en Situación de Alta Vulnerabilidad [Law on Protection of Indigenous Peoples of High Vulnerability], December 4, 2013.
  • Ley Nº 300, Ley Marco de la Madre Tierra y Desarrollo Integral para Vivir Bien [Law of Mother Earth], October 15, 2012.
  • Decisión Andina Nº 774, Política Andina de Lucha contra la Minería Ilegal [Andean Decision Nº 774], July 30, 2012.
  • Ley Nº 180, Ley de Protección del Territorio Indígena y Parque Nacional Isiboro Sécure–Tipnis [Law of Tipnis], October 24, 2011.
  • Ley Nº 112, Aprueba el Contrato de Colaboración Financiera N° 10219991 suscrito entre el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia y el Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimiento Económico e Social–BNDES de la República Federal del Brasil (Approves the Collaboration Contract between Bolivia and BNDES), May 7, 2011.
  • Ley Nº 1333, Ley de Medio Ambiente [Environmental Law], April 27, 1992.
  • Ley Nº 1257, que aprueba y ratifica el Convenio 169 sobre Pueblos Indígenas y Tribales en Países Independientes, aprobado en la 76a Conferencia de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo realizada el 27 de junio de 1989 [Law 1257 That Approves the ILO Convention 169], July 11, 1991. 
  • Decreto Ley Nº 07401, Declara "Parque Nacional del Isiboro y Sécure" [Law of the Isiboro and Sécure Park], November 22, 1965.

Decrees/Regulations:

  • Resolución Ministerial Nº 023/2015, Reglamento de Otorgación de y Extinción de Derechos Mineros [Regulation of Granting and Extinction of Mining Rights], January 30, 2015.
  • Decreto Supremo Nº 24782, Reglamento Ambiental para Actividades Mineras [Environmental Regulation for Mining Activities], July 31, 1997.
  • Decreto Supremo Nº 22610 [Regulation of Law of the Isiboro and Sécure Park], September 24, 1990.

Brazil

Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 1988

Laws and Legislative Decrees:

  • Lei Nº 13.575, de 26 de Dezembro de 2017, Cria a Agência Nacional de Mineração (ANM); extingue o Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral (DNPM); altera as Leis n º 11.046, de 27 de dezembro de 2004, e 10.826, de 22 de dezembro de 2003; e revoga a Lei nº 8.876, de 2 de maio de 1994, e dispositivos do Decreto-Lei nº 227, de 28 de fevereiro de 1967 (Código de Mineração) [Law That Creates the National Mining Agency], December 26, 2017.
  • Decreto Legislativo Nº 143, de 2002, Aprova o texto da Convenção nº 169 da Organização Internacional do Trabalho sobre os povos indígenas e tribais em países independentes [Law That Approves the ILO Convention 169], June 20, 2002.
  • Lei Nº 10.406, de 10 de Janeiro de 2002, Institui o Código Civil [Civil Code], January 10, 2002.
  • Lei Nº 9.605, de 12 de Fevereiro de 1998, Dispõe sobre as Sanções Penais e Administrativas Derivadas de Condutas e Atividades Lesivas ao Meio Ambiente, e dá outras Providências [Environmental Crimes Law], February 12, 1998.
  • Lei Nº 6.001 de 19 de Dezembro de 1973, Dispõe sobre o Estatuto do Índio [Indian Statute], December 19, 1973.

Decrees/Regulations:

  • Decreto Nº 9.406, de 12 de Junho de 2018, Regulamenta o Decreto-Lei nº 227, de 28 de fevereiro de 1967, a Lei nº 6.567, de 24 de setembro de 1978, a Lei nº 7.805, de 18 de julho de 1989, e a Lei nº 13.575, de 26 de dezembro de 2017 [Regulation of the Mining Code], June 12, 2018.
  • Portaria Interministerial Nº 60, Estabelece Procedimentos Administrativos que Disciplinam a Atuação dos Órgãos e Entidades da Administração Pública Federal em Processos de Licenciamento Ambiental de Competência do Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis–Ibama [Ordinance on Procedures for Environmental Licensing Processes], March 24, 2015.
  • Resolução CONAMA Nº 237, de 19 de Dezembro de 1997, Dispõe sobre a Revisão e Complementação dos Procedimentos e Critérios Utilizados para o Licenciamento Ambiental [Procedures and Criteria Used for Environmental Licensing], December 19, 1997.
  • Decreto Nº 1.775/96, de 8 de Janeiro de 1996, Dispõe sobre o Procedimento Administrativo de Demarcação das Terras Indígenas e dá outras Providências [Law of the Indigenous Lands Demarcation], January 8, 1996.
  • Decreto de 25 de Maio de 1992, Homologa a demarcação administrativa da Terra Indígena YANOMAMI, nos Estados de Roraima e Amazonas [Decree That Approves the Demarcation of the Yanomami Indigenous Land], May 25, 1992.
  • Resolução CONAMA Nº 1, de 23 de Janeiro de 1986, Dispõe sobre Critérios Básicos e Diretrizes Gerais para a Avaliação de Impacto Ambiental [Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment], January 23, 1986.

Court decisions and legal opinions:

  • Processo Nº 1000580-84.2019.4.01.3200, 1a Vara Federal Cível da Seção Judiciária do Estado do Amazonas, Ministerio Publico Federal [Process Nº 1000580], August 2, 2019.
  • Parecer Nº 001/2017/GAB/CGU/AGU, Advocacia-Geral da União–AGU [Legal Opinion Nº 01/2017], July 19, 2017. https://www.conjur.com.br/dl/parecer-agu-raposa-serra-sol.pdf.
  • Parecer Nº 469/2015/HP/PROGE/DNPM, Agência Nacional de Mineração–ANM (before, Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral, DNPM) [Legal Opinion Nº 469/2015], December 4, 2015.
  • Petição Nº 3.388 Roraima, Supremo Tribunal Federal [Petition Nº 3388 ED/RR], October 23, 2013.

Bills:

  • Projeto de Lei Nº 191/2020, Regulamenta o § 1º do art. 176 e o § 3º do art. 231 da Constituição para Estabelecer as Condições Específicas para a Realização da Pesquisa e da Lavra de Recursos Minerais e Hidrocarbonetos e para o Aproveitamento de Recursos Hídricos para Geração de Energia Elétrica em Terras Indígenas e Institui a Indenização pela Restrição do Usufruto de Terras Indígenas [Bill 191/2020], February 6, 2020.
  • Projeto de Lei Nº 1610/1996, Dispõe sobre a Exploração e o Aproveitamento de Recursos Minerais em Terras Indígenas, de que tratam os arts. 176, parágrafo 1º, e 231, parágrafo 3º, da Constituição Federal [Bill 1610/1996], March 11, 1996.

Colombia

Constitution, 1991

Laws and Legislative Decrees:

  • Ley Nº 1955, Por el cual se expide el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2018-202 [National Development Plan (2018–2022) Law (Law 1955 of 2019)], May 25, 2019.
  • Decisión Andina Nº 774, Política Andina de Lucha contra la Minería Ilegal [Andean Decision Nº 774], July 30, 2012.
  • Ley Nº 1333 de 2009, por la cual se establece el procedimiento sancionatorio ambiental y se dictan otras disposiciones [Law 1333, environmental sanctioning procedure], July 21, 2009.
  • Ley Nº 685 de 2001, Código de Minas [Mining Code], August 15, 2001.
  • Código Penal [Criminal Code], July 24, 2000.
  • Ley Nº 70 de 1993, por la cual se desarrolla el artículo transitorio 55 de la Constitución Política [Law 70, about Afro-Colombian peoples], August 27, 1993.
  • Ley Nº 21 de 1991, por medio de la cual se aprueba el Convenio número 169 sobre pueblos indígenas y tribales en países independientes, adoptado por la 76a. reunión de la Conferencia General de la O.I.T., Ginebra 1989 [Law That Approves the ILO Convention 169], March 4, 1991.

Decrees/Regulations:

  • Decreto Nº 1666 de 2016, Por el cual se adiciona el Decreto Único Reglamentario del Sector Administrativo de Minas y Energía, 1073 de 2015, relacionado con la clasificación minera [Decree on Mining Classification], October 21, 2016.
  • Decreto Nº 1073 de 2015, Por medio del cual se expide el Decreto Único Reglamentario del Sector Administrativo de Minas y Energía [Decree of the Administrative Sector of Mines], May 26, 2015.
  • Decreto Nº 1353 de 2014, Por el cual se crea un régimen especial con el fin de poner en funcionamiento los Territorios Indígenas respecto de la administración de los sistemas propios de los pueblos indígenas hasta que el Congreso expida la ley de que trata el artículo 329 de la Constitución Política [Special Regime for Indigenous Territories], October 7, 2014.
  • Resolución Nº 396 de 2013, por medio de la cual se establece el Procedimiento para la Radicación de Solicitudes Mineras en Ejercicio del Derecho de Prelación consagrado en los Artículos 124 y 133 del Código de Minas [Procedure for Exercising the Right of First Refusal], June 14, 2013.
  • Decreto Nº 2235 de 2012, por el cual se reglamentan el artículo 6° de la Decisión número 774 del 30 de julio de 2012 de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones y el artículo 106 de la Ley 1450 de 2011 en relación con el uso de maquinaria pesada y sus partes en actividades mineras sin las autorizaciones y exigencias previstas en la ley [Decree on the Use of Heavy Machinery in Mining Activities], October 29, 2012.
  • Decreto Nº 1320 de 1998, por el cual se reglamenta la consulta previa con las comunidades indígenas y negras para la explotación de los recursos naturales dentro de su territorio [Decree on Prior Consultation], July 13, 1998.
  • Decreto Nº 2164 de 1995, Por el cual se reglamenta parcialmente el Capítulo XIV de la Ley 160 de 1994 en lo relacionado con la dotación y titulación de tierras a las comunidades indígenas para la constitución, reestructuración, ampliación y saneamiento de los Resguardos Indígenas en el territorio nacional [Regulation on Titling of Indigenous Peoples’ Lands], December 7, 1995.
  • Decreto Nº 1745 de 1995, por el cual se reglamenta el Capítulo III de la Ley 70 de 1993, se adopta el procedimiento para el reconocimiento del derecho a la propiedad colectiva de las “Tierras de las Comunidades Negras” y “se dictan otras disposiciones” [Decree on the Procedure for the Recognition of the Right to Collective Property of Afro-Colombians], October 12, 1995.
  • Decreto Nº 1088 de 1993, Por el cual se regula la creación de las asociaciones de Cabildos y/o Autoridades Tradicionales Indígenas [Decree 1088 of 1993], June 11, 1993.
  • Resolución Nº 035 de 1988, Por la cual se constituye como Resguardo Indígena Yaigojé-Río Apaporis en favor de las Comunidades Tanimuca, Yucuna, Barasano, Letuama, Matapí, Macuna y Macú un globo de terreno baldío situado en ambas márgenes de los Ríos Popeyacá y Apaporis, en jurisdicción de los Corregimientos Comisariales de Mirití—Paraná y Pacoa, Municipios de Leticia y Mitú, Comisarias de Amazonas y Vaupés, respectivamente [Resolution 035 of 1988], April 23, 1988.

Court decisions:

  • Sentencia Nº T-005/16, Corte Constitucional [Decision Nº T-005/16], January 19, 2016.
  • Sentencia Nº T-384A/14, Corte Constitucional [Decision Nº T-384A/14], June 17, 2014.
  • Sentencia Nº T-387/13, Corte Constitucional [Decision Nº T-387/13], June 28, 2013.
  • Sentencia Nº T-129/11, Corte Constitucional [Decision Nº T-129/11], March 3, 2011.

Ecuador

Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador, 2008

  • Decisión Andina Nº 774, Política Andina de Lucha contra la Minería Ilegal [Andean Decision Nº 774], July 30, 2012.
  • Ley Nº 45, Ley de Minería [Mining Law], January 29, 2009.
  • Ley Nº 86, Ley Orgánica de las Instituciones Públicas de Pueblos Indígenas del Ecuador que se autodefinen como Nacionalidades de Raíces Ancestrales [Law of Indigenous Peoples’ Public Institutions], September 11, 2007.

Decrees/Regulations:

  • Resolución Nº 043-DIRARCOM-2015, que Sustituye Íntegramente el Instructivo para la Constitución de Servidumbres contenido en la Resolución Nº. 003-INS-DIR-ARCOM-2011 de fecha 21 de Septiembre de 2011 [Rules for the Establishment of Mining Easements], August 13, 2015.
  • Decreto Ejecutivo Nº 119, Reglamento de la Ley de Minería [Regulation of the Mining Law], November 16, 2009.

Court decisions:

  • Judgment of June 27, 2012, Case of the Kichwa Indigenous People of Sarayaku v. Ecuador, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) [Case of the Kichwa Indigenous People of Sarayaku v. Ecuador], June 27, 2012.
  • Sentencia Nº 001-10-SIN-CC, Corte Constitucional [Decision Nº 001-10-SIN-CC], March 18, 2010.

Guyana

Constitution of the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, 1980

  • Protected Areas Act, No. 14, 2011
  • Forests Act (Cap. 67:01), 2009
  • Amerindian Act (Cap. 29:01), 2006
  • Environmental Protection Act, 1996
  • Mining Act (Cap. 65:01), 1989
  • Land Registry Act (Cap. 5:02), 1959
  • State Lands Regulations, 1919
  • State Lands Act (Cap. 62:01), 1903

Peru

Political Constitution of Peru, 1993

Laws and Legislative Decrees:

  • Decisión Andina Nº 774, Política Andina de Lucha contra la Minería Ilegal [Andean Decision Nº 774], July 30, 2012.
  • Ley Nº 29785, Ley del derecho a la consulta previa a los pueblos indígenas u originarios, reconocido en el Convenio 169 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) [Law on the Right to Prior Consultation of Indigenous Peoples], September 7, 2011.
  • Ley Nº 28736, Ley para la protección de pueblos indígenas u originarios en situación de aislamiento y en situación de contacto inicial [Law of Indigenous or Native Peoples in Isolation Situation and Initial Contact Situation], May 18, 2006.
  • Ley Nº 27811, Ley que establece el régimen de protección de los conocimientos colectivos de los Pueblos Indígenas vinculados a los Recursos Biológicos [Law for the Protection of the Collective Knowledge of Indigenous Peoples Associated with Biological Resources], August 10, 2002.
  • Ley Nº 26505, Ley de la inversión privada en el desarrollo de las actividades económicas en las tierras del territorio nacional y de las comunidades campesinas y nativas [Law of the Development of Economic Activities in the Lands of the National Territory and Peasant and Native Communities], July 18, 1995.
  • Ley Nº 24656, Ley General de Comunidades Campesinas [Peasant Communities Law], April 14, 1987.
  • Decreto Legislativo Nº 109, Ley General de Minería [Mining Law], June 13, 1981.
  • Decreto Ley Nº 22175, Ley de Comunidades Nativas y de Desarrollo Agrario de la Selva y Ceja de Selva [Native Communities Law], May 10, 1978.

Supreme Decrees/Regulations:

  • Decreto Supremo N° 042-2017-EM, Reglamento de Protección Ambiental para las Actividades de Exploración Minera [Environmental Protection Regulations for Mining Exploration Activities], December 22, 2017.
  • Decreto Supremo N° 040-2014-EM, Reglamento de Protección y Gestión Ambiental para las Actividades de Explotación, Beneficio, Labor General, Transporte y Almacenamiento Minero [Regulation of Protection and Environmental Management for Exploitation Activities], November 12, 2014.
  • Decreto Supremo Nº 001-2012-MC, Reglamento de la Ley Nº 29785, Ley del Derecho a la Consulta Previa a los Pueblos Indígenas u Originarios reconocido en el Convenio 169 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) [Regulation of the Law on the Right to Prior Consultation], April 3, 2012.
  • Decreto Supremo Nº 002-2016-VIVIENDA, Decreto Supremo que aprueba el Reglamento del Capítulo I del Título IV de la Ley Nº 30327, Ley de Promoción de las Inversiones para el Crecimiento Económico y el Desarrollo Sostenible [Regulation of the Investment Promotion Law for Economic Growth and Sustainable Development], January 22, 2016.
  • Decreto Supremo Nº 001-2015-EM, Aprueban disposiciones para procedimientos mineros que impulsen proyectos de inversión [Regulations for Mining Procedures That Promote Investment Projects], January 6, 2015.
  • Decreto Supremo Nº 017-96-AG, Aprueban el Reglamento del Artículo 7 de la Ley Nº 26505, referido a las servidumbres sobre tierras para el ejercicio de actividades mineras o de hidrocarburos [Regulation on Easements for Mining Activities], October 19, 1996.
  • Decreto Supremo Nº 03-94-EM, Aprueban el Reglamento de diversos Títulos del Texto Único Ordenado de la Ley General de Minería [Regulation of the Mining Law], January 15, 1994.
  • Decreto Supremo Nº 18-92-EM, Aprueban el Reglamento de Procedimientos Mineros [Mining Procedures Regulation], September 8, 1992.
  • Decreto Supremo Nº 014-92-EM, Texto Único Ordenado de la Ley General de Minería [Mining Law Decree], June 4, 1992.

Court decisions:

  • Resolución Nº 28, Expediente Nº 00675-2017-0-2701-JM-CI-01, Corte Superior de Justicia de Madre de Dios [Resolution Nº 28], February 27, 2019.
  • Resolución Nº 20, Expediente Nº 00675-2017-0-2701-JM-CI-01, Corte Superior de Justicia de Madre de Dios [Resolution Nº 20], December 11, 2018.
  • Resolución Nº 38/17, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) [Resolution Nº 38/17], September 8, 2017.
  • Expediente Nº 01126-2011-HC/TC, Tribunal Constitucional [Dossier Nº 01126-2011-HC/TC], September 11, 2012.
  • Expediente Nº 00025-2009-PI/TC, Tribunal Constitucional [Dossier Nº 00025-2009-PI/TC], March 17, 2011.
  • Expediente Nº 05427-2009-PC/TC, Tribunal Constitucional [Dossier Nº 05427-2009-PC/TC], June 30, 2010.
  • Expediente Nº 0022-2009-PI/TC, Tribunal Constitucional [Dossier Nº 0022-2009-PI/TC], June 9, 2010.
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