How Multistakeholder Partnerships Can Accelerate the UN Sustainable Development Goals

Download PDF


AFI (Alliance for Financial Inclusion). 2018. Brazil: Financial Citizenship Journey in Brazil. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: AFI.

Africa GreenCo. 2020. “Africa GreenCo.” Accessed September 18, 2020.

AGRA (the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa). 2020. “Policy and Strategic Partnerships.” Accessed April 23, 2020.

Albani, M., and K. Henderson. 2014. “Creating Partnerships for Sustainability.” McKinsey & Co. July 1. Accessed September 18, 2020.

Allas, T., M. Chechinski, R. Dillon, R. Dobbs, A. Cadena, E. Daly, D. Fine, et al. 2018. Delivering for Citizens: How to Triple the Success Rate of Government Transformation. Report. McKinsey & Company.

Austin, J., and M. Seitanidi. 2012. “Collaborative Value Creation: A Review of Partnering between Nonprofits and Businesses. Part 2: Partnership Processes and Outcomes.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 41: 929.

Ayala-Orozco, B., J. Rosell, J. Mercon, I. Bueno, G. Alatorre-Frenk, A. Langle-Flores, and A. Lobato. 2018. “Challenges and Strategies in Place-Based Multistakeholder Collaboration for Sustainability: Learning from Experiences in the Global South.” Sustainability 10 (9): 3217.

Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo. 2002. Linked: The New Science of Networks. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.

BCSD (Business and Sustainable Development Commission). 2017. Partnerships for Sustainable Development: Collective Action by Business, Governments and Civil Society to Achieve Scale and Transformation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School.

Beisheim, M., and N. Simon. 2016. “Multistakeholder Partnerships for Implementing the 2030 Agenda: Improving Accountability and Transparency.” Paper prepared for the 2016 ECOSOC Partnership Forum, March 11, 2016.

Belfer Center (Harvard Kennedy School Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs). 2020. “Environment and Natural Resources.”!the-roy-award. Accessed September 21, 2020.

Berkeley, S. 2019. “The Power of Vaccines and How Gavi Has Helped Make the World Healthier.” JAMA 322 (13): 1251–52. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.13190.

Bos, G., C. Larsfalten, P. Brun, and C. Hanson, eds. 2016. Success Factors in Green Growth Partnerships. Copenhagen, Denmark: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark.

Brouwer, H., J. Woodhill, M. Hemmati, M. Memmati, K. Verhoosel, and S. van Vugt. 2016. The MSP Guide, How to Design and Facilitate Multistakeholder Partnerships. Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen University and Research, and Rugby, England: Practical Action Publishing.

Business and Sustainable Development Commission. 2017. Better Business Better World. London: Business and Sustainable Development Commission.

C&E Advisory. 2018. Corporate-NGO Partnership Barometer. London: C&E Advisory.

Cabaj, M. 2019. What We Know So Far about Sets of Principles for Evaluating Systems Change Efforts. Waterloo, Ontario: Here to There Consulting Inc. and Tamarack Institute.

CEIA (Clean Energy Investment Accelerator). 2020. “Factsheet.” Accessed April 23, 2020.

Chakrabari, K., B. Dahiya, C. Gual, T. Jorgensen, A. Ogbuigwe, M. Okitasari, A. Queralt, et al. 2018. Approaches to SDG 17 Partnerships for the Sustainable Development Goals. Barcelona, Spain: Global University Network for Innovation.

Clarke, A., and A. Crane. 2018. “Cross-Sector Partnerships for Systemic Change: Systematized Literature Review and Agenda for Further Research.” Journal of Business Ethics 150: 303–13.

Clean Cargo. 2020. “About Clean Cargo.” Accessed April 16, 2020.

Climate-KIC. 2020. “Making an Impact.” Accessed August 26, 2020.

CNCA (Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance). 2020. “About.” Accessed June 1, 2020.

Collison, C., A. Birney, and S. Uren. 2014. Collaboration Guidebook. London: Forum of the Future.

Crawford, K., R. Dobbe, T. Dryer, G. Fried, B. Green, E. Kaziunas, A. Kak, et al. 2019. AI Now 2019 Report. New York: The AI Now Institute, New York University.

CSLF (Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum). 2020. “About CSLF.” Accessed August 26, 2020.

Cummings, G., and C. Worley. 2014. Organization Development and Change. Mason, Ohio: South Western Cengage Learning.

Dahiya, B., and M. Okitasari, 2018. Partnering for Sustainable Development: Guidelines for Multistakeholder Partnerships to Implement the 2030 Agenda in Asia and the Pacific. Tokyo, Japan, and Bangkok, Thailand: United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability.

Dalberg. 2020. SDG Partnerships Agenda: Accelerating Progress. Report. Philanthropy University, GSVLabs, and the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation.

Denoncourt, J. 2017. “IP Debt Finance and SMEs: Revealing the Evolving Conceptual Framework Drawing on Initiatives from Around the World.” In Security Interests in Intellectual Property, edited by T. Kono, 1–38. Gateway East, Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.

Dentoni, D., V. Bitzer, and G. Schouten. 2018. “Harnessing Wicked Problems in Multistakeholder Partnerships.” Journal of Business Ethics 150: 333–56.

EDB (Singapore Economic Development Board). 2016. “World’s First Driverless Taxi System Comes to Singapore.” Accessed April 16, 2020.

Enclude (Enclude: A Palladium Company). 2019. Systems Change: An Emerging Practice in Impact Investing. Washington, DC: Open Society Foundations.

Energise Africa. 2020. “Our partnership.” Accessed September 18, 2020.

Energy 4 Impact. 2020. Energise Africa Investment and Impact Report. Oxford, UK: Energy 4 Impact and Energise Africa.

Enright, S., C. Oger, P. Pruzan-Jorgensen, and A. Farrag-Thibault. 2018. Private Sector Collaboration for Sustainable Development. San Francisco, CA: BSR.

FEMSA (Fomento Economico Mexicano). 2019. “The Latin American Water Funds Partnership Recognized by P4G for Its Contributions to Water Security across Latin America.” Accessed May 26, 2020.

Fortune. 2019. “World’s Most Admired Companies.” Accessed April 16, 2020.

Friends of Ocean Action. 2020. “Ocean Data for Restoring Our Global Commons.”

FSG and Collective Impact Forum. 2020. “Evaluating Systems Change: Where to Start.” FSG Webinar, PowerPoint Presentation. February 28, 2020.

G20 (G20 Development Working Group). 2015. G20 Inclusive Business Framework. Antalya, Turkey: United Nations Development Programme Istanbul International Center for Private Sector Development, 1–13.

Gass, R. 2011. What Is Transformation? And How It Advances Social Change. Redondo Beach, CA: Social Transformation Project.

Gavi. 2020. “Our Alliance.” Accessed April 17, 2020.

GCF (Green Climate Fund). 2020. “Partners.” Accessed April 16, 2020.

GCPSE (Global Centre for Public Service Excellence) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). n.d. SDG Implementation Framework: Effective Public Service for SDG Implementation. Global Centre for Public Service Excellence, United Nations Development Programme. Local 2030.

GeSI (Global e-Sustainability Initiative) and Accenture. 2016. #SystemTransformation: How Digital Solutions Will Drive Progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals. Brussels, Belgium: GeSI.

GGGI (Global Green Growth Institute). 2018a. Annual Report 2018: Partnering to Catalyze Green Growth. Seoul, South Korea: GGGI.

GGGI. 2018b. Mobilization of Private Investment in Green Growth in Viet Nam. Hanoi, Vietnam: GGGI.

GGGI. 2019. Recomendaciones de Políticas Género-Responsivas en Sectores de Crecimiento Verde. Mexico City, Mexico: GGGI.

Global Coffee Report. 2018. “McDonalds Joins Starbucks and Closed Loop Partners to End Cup Waste.” July 18, 2018. Accessed September 18, 2020.

The Global Fund. 2020. “Private and Nongovernment Partners.” Accessed April 23, 2020.

GOB (Gobierno de Mexico). 2018. “The Alliance for Sustainability Celebrates the Launch of a Pilot Project on Energy Efficiency with the Private Sector.” Accessed May 26, 2020.

GOB. 2020. “Alianza por la Sostenibilidad.” Accessed May 26, 2020.

Gomme, J., and J. Perks. 2018. “Business and the SDGs: A Survey of WBCSD Members and Global Network Partners.” World Business Council for Sustainable Development Survey Results Report, July 9, 2018.

GRI, UN Global Compact, and WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development). 2015. The Guide for Business Action on the SDGs. GRI, UN Global Compact, and WBCSD.

GSK (GlaxoSmithKline). 2020. “Save the Children Partnership.” Accessed April 17, 2020.

Gupta A., A. Raghunath, L. Gula, L. Rheinbay, and M. Hart. 2019. The Decade to Deliver: A Call to Business Action. New York: United Nations Global Compact and Accenture Strategy.

Hargreaves, M. 2010. Evaluating System Change: A Planning Guide. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica.

Hazelwood, P. 2015. Global Multistakeholder Partnerships: Scaling Up Private Collective Impact for the SDGs. Independent Research Forum.

Herweijer, C., B. Combes, A. Gawel, A.M. Larsen, M. Davies, J. Wrigley, and M. Donnelly. 2020. Unlocking Technology for the Global Goals. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum.

Hofstetter, D. 2019. “Transformation Capital: A New Investment Logic for Catalyzing Systems Change.” Environmental Times, July 30, 2019.

Holland, J.H. 1998. Emergence: From Chaos to Order. New York: Basic Books.

Horan, D. 2019. “A New Approach to Partnerships for SDG Transformations.” Sustainability 11 (18): 1–22.

Hultman, N., K. Sierra, J. Eis, and A. Shapiro. 2016. Green Growth Innovation: New Pathways for International Cooperation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution and Global Green Growth Institute.

IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank). 2016. Supporting Transformational Change for Poverty Reduction and Shared Prosperity. Washington, DC: IBRD/World Bank.

ICAT (Initiative for Climate Action Transparency). 2019. Nonstate and Subnational Action Guide: Integrating the Impact of Nonstate and Subnational Mitigation Actions into National Greenhouse Gas Projections, Targets, and Planning, edited by K. Lütkehermöller, C. Elliott, and N. Singh. Washington, DC: ICAT, New Climate Institute, World Resources Institute, CDP, and The Climate Group.

IIX. 2017. “What We Do.” Accessed April 9, 2020.

IIX. 2020. “Who We Are.” Accessed September 18, 2020.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2018. “Summary for Policymakers.” In Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5°C above Pre-industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty, edited by Masson-Delmotte, D., P. Zhai, H. Portner, D. Roerts, J. Skea, P. Shukla, A. Pirani, et al.

IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency). 2020. Measuring the Socio-Economics of Transition: Focus on Jobs. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: IRENA.

Jenkins, B., R. Gilbert, and J. Nelson. 2017. The 2030 Water Resources Group: Collaboration and Country Leadership to Strengthen Water Security. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School.

Johnson, C. 2019. “Racial Bias Medical Algorithm Favors White Patients over Sicker Black Patients.” Washington Post, October 24, 2019.

Kamphof, R., and J. Melissen. 2017. “SDGs, Foreign Ministries and the Art of Partnering with the Private Sector.” Global Policy 9 (3): 327–35.

Kania, J., M. Kramer, and P. Senge. 2018. The Water of Systems Change. Washington, DC: FSG.

Kharas, H., and J. McArthur. 2019. “Needs, Spending and Financing for Universal Achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.” Working paper. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution.

KPMG International. 2016. Unlocking the Power of Partnership: A Framework for Effective Cross-Sector Collaboration to Advance the Global Goals for Sustainable Development. KPMG International Development Services.

Kramer, M., and M. Pfizer. 2016. “The Ecosystem of Shared Value.” Harvard Business Review October: 80–89.

KS, J., A. Chowdhury, K. Sharma, and D. Platz. 2016. “Public-Private Partnerships and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: Fit for Purpose?” DESA Working Paper No. 148. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Kuruvilla, S., R. Hinton, T. Boerma, R. Bunney, N. Casamitjana, R. Cortez, P.l. Fracassi., et al. 2018. “Business Not as Usual: How Multisectoral Collaboration Can Promote Transformative Change for Health and Sustainable Development.” BMJ 2018 (363): k4771.

Larson, A. 2018. “Evaluation amidst Complexity: Eight Evaluation Questions to Explain How Complex Adaptive Systems Affect Program Impact.” Evaluation 24 (3): 353–62.

Latham, N. 2014. A Practical Guide to Evaluating Systems Change in a Human Services System Context. San Francisco, CA: Center for Evaluation Innovation.

Maassen, A., and M. Galvin. 2019. “What Does Urban Transformation Look Like? Findings from a Global Prize Competition.” Sustainability 11 (17): 4653.

Meadows, D. 2008. Thinking in Systems. London: Sustainability Institute.

Melo, B. 2018. “Collaborative Efforts of Sustainable Development: Surveying the Literature on Multistakeholder Initiatives to Realize the Sustainable Development Goals.” UCLA Technical Report. Los Angeles, CA: University of California at Los Angeles.

Ménascé, D. 2016. “NGO-Business Partnerships: a Win-Win Model. Interview with Franck Renaudin, founder and executive director, Entrepreneurs du Monde,” in Field Actions Science Reports. The Journal of Field Actions. Special Issue 14.

Menden, A., N. van der Vleuter, C. Pirzer, and I. von Blombert. 2019. NGO and Company Partnerships for Inclusive Business. Berlin, Germany: Endeva.

Mersmann, F., K.H. Olsen, T. Wehnert, and Z. Boodoo. 2014. From Theory to Practice: Understanding Transformational Change in NAMAs. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP DTU Partnership.

Monks, K. 2017. “M-Pesa: Kenya’s Mobile Money Success Story Turns 10.” CNN. February 24, 2017.

Moreddu, C. 2016. “Public-Private Partnerships for Agriculture Innovation: Lessons from Recent Experiences.” OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers, No. 92. Paris, France: OECD.

MSC (Marine Stewardship Council). 2017. “Sustainable Seafood: The First 20 Years.” Accessed June 1, 2020.

Musser, P., and S. Kapadia. 2017. “Mastercard Experiences during the Humanitarian Response in Southern Europe.” Field Exchange 54: 108–9.

National Treasury. 2015a. Cities Support Programme Framework. Pretoria: National Treasury, Republic of South Africa.

National Treasury 2015b. Guidance Note for the Built Environment Program Plan 2016/17–2018/19. Pretoria, South Africa: National Treasury, Republic of South Africa.

Neely, C., M. Bourne, S. Chesterman, I. Kouplevatskaya-Buttoud, D. Bojic, and D. Vallee. 2017. Implementing 2030 Agenda for Food and Agriculture: Accelerating Impact through Cross-Sectoral Coordination at the Country Level. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Agroforestry Centre.

Nelson, J., B. Jenkins, and R. Gilbert. 2015. Business and the Sustainable Development Goals: Building Blocks for Success at Scale. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School, Business Fights Poverty, and the UK Department for International Development.

NextGen Consortium. 2020. “Breakthrough Partnerships.” Accessed April 16, 2020.

ODI (Overseas Development Institute) and FDC (Foundation for Development Cooperation). 2003. “Multi-stakeholder Partnerships.” Issue Paper. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Global Knowledge Partnership.

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2017. Getting Governments Organised to Deliver on the Sustainable Development Goals. New York: United Nations.

OECD. 2018a. Better Business for 2030: Putting the SDGs at the Core. Paris: OECD Emerging Markets Network.

OECD. 2018b. Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development: Toward Sustainable and Resilient Societies. Paris: OECD.

Okitasari, M., B. Dahiya and K. Takemoto. 2018. “Building Successful Multi-stakeholder Partnerships to Implement the 2030 Agenda in the Asia-Pacific Region.” In Approaches to SDG 17 Partnerships for the Sustainable Development Goals, edited by J. Vilalta, A. Betts, V. Gomez, and M. Cayetano. Barcelona, Spain: Global University Network for Innovation.

Olsen, K.H., N. Singh, D. Rich, F. Mersmann, G.A. Neba, J. Ogahara, K. Uhlemann, et al. 2018. Transformational Change Guidance. Guidance for Assessing the Transformational Impacts of Policies and Actions. Copenhagen, Denmark: United Nations Environment Programme DTU Partnership.

Oorthuizen, J., H. Vermaak, C. Dalumau, and E. Papaemmanuel. 2018. Collaboration and Transformation: The Art of Making International Trade More Sustainable. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

P4G (Partnering for Green Growth and the Global Goals). 2020a. “P4G State-of-the-Art Partnership Awards.”,for%20a%20more%20sustainable%20world. Accessed September 21, 2020.

P4G. 2020b. “Sustainable Food Platform.” Accessed August 26, 2020.

P4G. 2020c. “What Is a P4G Partnership?” Accessed September 21, 2020.

P4G. 2020d. “Zero Emission Rapid Bus-Deployment Bus Accelerator.” Accessed September 18, 2020.

Pattberg, P., and O. Widerberg. 2016. “Transnational Multistakeholder Partnerships for Sustainable Development: Conditions for Success.” Ambio 45 (1): 42–51.

Peterson, K., A. Mahmud, N. Bhavaraju, and A. Mihaly. n.d. The Promise of Partnerships: A Dialogue between INGOs and Donors. Washington, DC: FSG.

Pieterse, E., and K. Owens. 2018. Johannesburg: Confronting Spatial Inequality. Washington DC: World Resources Institute.

Pinz, A., N. Roudyani, and J. Thaler. 2018. “Public-Private Partnerships as Instruments to Achieve Sustainability-Related Objectives: The State of the Art and a Research Agenda.” Public Management Review 20 (1): 1–22.

Podder, S., and S. Singh. 2018. Technology for Good: Scaling Up Social Transformation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Report. Accenture.

Poret, S. 2014. “Corporate-NGO Partnerships in CSR Activities: Why and How?” HAL. hal-01070474, Version 1. In Cahier de Recherche 2014–21, 201.

Poret, S. 2019. “Corporate-NGO Partnerships through Sustainability Labeling Schemes: Motives and Risks.” Sustainability 11 (9): 2689.

PPCA (Powering Past Coal Alliance). 2020. “Just Transition Task Force.” Accessed August 25, 2020.

Preskill, H., and J. Cook. 2020. “Evaluating Systems Change Efforts: Where to Start.” Webinar hosted by Collective Impact Forum and FSG, February 28, 2020.

Preskill, H., and S. Gopal. 2014. Evaluating Complexity: Propositions for Improving Practice. Washington, DC: FSG.

Preskill, H., M. Parkurst, and J. Juster. 2015. Guide to Evaluating Collective Impact. Washington, DC: FSG.

Project Last Mile. 2020. “Project Last Mile.” Accessed April 16, 2020.

Puri, J. 2018. “Transformational Change: The Challenge of a Brave New World.” Independent Evaluation Unit Learning Paper no. 1. Yeonsu-gu, Icheon, Republic of Korea: Green Climate Fund Independent Evaluation Unit.

PWC (PriceWaterhouseCoopers). 2017. Working in an SDG Economy: Aligning Business Activity to the Global Goals. PWC.

PWC. 2015. Make It Your Business: Engaging with the Sustainable Development Goals. PWC.

RSPO (Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil). 2020. “About.” Accessed September 18, 2020.

SAC (Sustainable Apparel Coalition). 2020. “The Sustainable Apparel Coalition.” Accessed June 1, 2020.

Sachs, J., G. Schmidt-Traub, M. Mazzucato, D. Messner, N. Nakicenovic, and J. Rockstrom. 2016. “Six Transformations to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.” Nature Sustainability 2: 805–14.

Schwab, K. 2016. “The Fourth Industrial Revolution: What It Means and How to Respond.” World Economic Forum. January 14, 2016. Accessed September 18, 2020.

Seitanidi, M. 2015. “Growth in CSO-Business Partnering: Opportunities and Pitfalls.” In State of Civil Society Report 2015, edited by S. Drost and I. Stoteler. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Partnership Resource Centre at RSM, Erasmus University.

Shawoo, Z., A. Dzebo, R. Hagele, G. Iacobuta, S. Chan, C. Muhoza, P. Osano, et al. 2020. Increasing Policy Coherence between NDCs and SDGs: A National Perspective. Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute.

Stern, A. 2017. “When and How to Shut Down a Partnership.” Stanford Social Innovation Review.

Stern. A., D. Kingston, and J. Ke. 2015. More Than the Sum of Its Parts: Making Multistakeholder Initiatives Work. Mountain View, CA: The Global Development Incubator.

Stibbe, D., and D. Prescott. 2017. Collaboration for the SDGs: Exploring the Support System for Effective Partnering. Oxford, UK: The Partnering Initiative. 

Stibbe, D., and D. Prescott. 2020. The SDG Partnership Guidebook: A Practical Guide to Building High-Impact Multistakeholder Partnerships for the Sustainable Development Goals. Oxford, UK: The Partnering Initiative and UNDESA.

Stibbe, D.T., S. Reid, and J. Gilbert. 2018. Maximising the Impact of Partnerships for the SDGs: A Practical Guide to Partnership Value Creation. Oxford UK: The Partnering Initiative.

Sustainable Brands. 2018. “McDonald’s Joins Starbucks in Quest for Compostable Cup; Ireland Already Found One.” July 17, 2018. Accessed September 18, 2020.

Torres-Rahman, Z., M. Grogg, and M. Hahn. 2018. "Realizing the SDGs through Transformational Corporate-NGO Partnerships.“ Standford Social Innovation Review.,Realizing%20the%20SDGs%20Through%20Transformational%20Corporate%2DNGO%20Partnerships,meet%20the%20Sustainable%20Development%20Goals.

Treichel, K., A. Hoh, S. Biermann, and P. Conze. 2017. Multistakeholder Partnerships in the Context of Agenda 2030: A Practice-Based Analysis of Potential Benefits, Challenges and Success Factors. Bonn, Germany: GIZ.

TWI2050 (The World in 2050 Initiative). 2018. Transformations to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

UN (United Nations). 2015. Partnerships for Sustainable Development Goals: A Legacy Review toward Realizing the 2030 Agenda. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

UN. 2019. Global Sustainable Development Report 2019: The Future Is Now—Science for Achieving Sustainable Development. New York: United Nations.

UN DESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs). 2019. “Public Institutions for Sustainable Development Goals.” Accessed November 28, 2019.

UN DESA. 2019. World Public Sector Report 2019. New York: United Nations.

UN DESA. 2020. “The 17 Goals.” Accessed August 25, 2020.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2016. “Manage Risk, Improve Disaster Response.” Accessed September 18, 2020.

UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity). 2019. “IPBES Global Assessment Underscores Need for Transformational Change to Safeguard Life on Earth,” May 6, 2019.

UNGC (United Nations Global Compact). 2013. UN-Business Partnerships: A Handbook. New York: UNGC.

UNGC, WMB (We Mean Business), and WRI (World Resources Institute). 2018. “The Ambition Loop.” Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

Urmetzer, S., V. Block, A. D. Andersen, M.P. Schlaile, J. Timmermans, M. Mueller, and A. Pyka. 2017. “Innovation Systems for Transformations toward Sustainability? Taking the Normative Dimension Seriously.” Sustainability 9 (12): 2253.

USCIB (United States Council for International Business). 2015. Business Priorities for the UN Sustainable Development Goals. New York: USCIB.

Van der Vleuten, N. 2019. “How Do NGO and Company Partnerships for Incisive Business Work?” Include blog. August 8, 2019.

Van Tulder, R., and N. Keen. 2018. “Capturing Collaborative Challenges: Designing Complexity-Sensitive Theories of Change for Cross-Sector Partnerships.” Journal of Business Ethics 150: 315–32.

Von Bertalanffy, L. 1955. “General Systems Theory.” Main Currents in Modern Thought 11: 75–83.

Voorhies, R. 2016. “The Evidence Is In: Mobile Money Can Help Close the Gender Gap.” World Economic Forum. December 9, 2016. Accessed September 18, 2020.

WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development). 2020. “Unlocking Systems TransformationVision 2050 Refresh.” Vision 2050 Issue Brief. Geneva, Switzerland: WBCSD.

We Are Social. 2020. “Digital around the World in 2020.” Accessed April 20, 2020.

West, S.M., M. Whittaker, and K. Crawford. 2019. Discriminating Systems: Gender, Race, and Power in AI. New York: AI Now Institute, New York University.

Westphal, M., and J. Thwaites. 2016. “Transformational Climate Finance: An Exploration of Low-Carbon Energy.” Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

WMB (We Mean Business Coalition). 2020. “What We Do.” Accessed June 1, 2020.

World Bank. 2020. Doing Business 2020: Comparing Regulation in 190 Economies. Washington DC: World Bank.

WRAP (Waste and Resources Action Programme). 2020. “History of Courtauld.” Accessed September 18, 2020.

WRI (World Resources Institute). 2020. “Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy.” Accessed September 18, 2020.

Start reading