Direct Air Capture: Assessing Impacts to Enable Responsible Scaling


Althor, G., and B. Witt. 2020. “A Quantitative Systematic Review of Distributive Environmental Justice Literature: A Rich History and the Need for an Enterprising Future.” Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences 10 (1): 91–103. doi:10.1007/s13412-019-00582-9.

Baker, S., J. Stolaroff, G. Peridas, S. Pang, H. Goldstein, F. Lucci, and W. Li. 2020. “Getting to Neutral: Options for Negative Carbon Emissions in California.”

Baptista, A.I. 2019. “Local Policies for Environmental Justice: A National Scan.” Natural Resources Defense Council.

Baruch-Mordo, S., J.M. Kiesecker, C.M. Kennedy, J.R. Oakleaf, and J.J. Opperman. 2019. “From Paris to Practice: Sustainable Implementation of Renewable Energy Goals.” Environmental Research Letters 14 (2): 024013. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aaf6e0.

Batres, M., F.M. Wang, H. Buck, R. Kapila, U. Kosar, R. Licker, D. Nagabhushan, E. Rekhelman, and V. Suarez. 2021. “Environmental and Climate Justice and Technological Carbon Removal.” The Electricity Journal 34 (7): 107002. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2021.107002.

Bergen, M. 2020. “How Wind Turbines Are Providing a Safety Net for Rural Farmers,” October.

Beuttler, C., L. Charles, and J. Wurzbacher. 2019. “The Role of Direct Air Capture in Mitigation of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Frontiers in Climate 1. doi:10.3389/fclim.2019.00010.

Blondes, M.S., M.D. Merrill, S.T. Anderson, and C.A. DeVera. 2019. “Carbon Dioxide Mineralization Feasibility in the United States.” USGS Numbered Series 2018–5079. Scientific Investigations Report. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.

BLS. 2021. “Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.”

Brett, D., and T. Woelfel. 2016. “Moving Beyond Job Creation: Defining and Measuring the Creation of Quality Jobs,” 40.

Breugelmans, O., C. Ameling, M. Marra, P. Fischer, J. van de Kassteele, J. Lijzen, A. Oosterlee, et al. 2013. “Lung Cancer Risk and Past Exposure to Emissions from a Large Steel Plant.” Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2013 (November): e684035. doi:10.1155/2013/684035.

Buck, H.J. 2016. “Rapid Scale-up of Negative Emissions Technologies: Social Barriers and Social Implications.” Climatic Change 139 (2): 155–67. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1770-6.

Carbon Engineering. 2020. “Pale Blue Dot Energy and Carbon Engineering Create Partnership to Deploy Direct Air Capture in the UK.”

Carbon Engineering. 2021. “Engineering Begins on UK’s First Large-Scale Facility That Captures Carbon Dioxide Out of the Atmosphere.”

Carlock, G., J. Neuberger, L. Calle, and E. Said. 2021. “Addressing Energy Equity in the United States: Policy Considerations for Federal Investment,” November.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2019a. “CDC-NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards—Potassium Hydroxide.”

CDC. 2019b. “CDC NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards—Potassium Hydroxide.” October 30, 2019.

CDC. 2019c. “CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards—Sodium Hydroxide.” October 30.

Clayton, S. 2000. “Models of Justice in the Environmental Debate,” 16.

Clean Water Action. 2016. “Newark Makes History with First-in-the-Nation Environmental Justice Ordinance.” Clean Water Action. July 15.

ClimateWatch. 2021. “Data Explorer / Climate Watch.”

Cook-Patton, S.C., S.M. Leavitt, D. Gibbs, N.L. Harris, K. Lister, K.J. Anderson-Teixeira, R.D. Briggs, et al. 2020. “Mapping Carbon Accumulation Potential from Global Natural Forest Regrowth.” Nature 585 (7826): 545–50. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2686-x.

Deutz, S., and A. Bardow. 2021. “Life-Cycle Assessment of an Industrial Direct Air Capture Process Based on Temperature–Vacuum Swing Adsorption.” Nature Energy.

Devine-Wright, P. 2011. “Public Engagement with Large-Scale Renewable Energy Technologies: Breaking the Cycle of NIMBYism.” WIREs Climate Change 2 (1): 19–26. doi:10.1002/wcc.89.

European Environment Agency. 2011. “Air Pollution Impacts from Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)—European Environment Agency.” Technical report.

Fargione, J., D.L. Haase, O.T. Burney, O.A. Kildisheva, G. Edge, S.C. Cook-Patton, T. Chapman, et al. 2021. “Challenges to the Reforestation Pipeline in the United States.” Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 4. doi: 10.3389/ffgc.2021.629198.

Fasihi, M., O. Efimova, and C. Breyer. 2019. “Techno-Economic Assessment of CO2 Direct Air Capture Plants.” Journal of Cleaner Production 224 (July): 957–80. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.086.

Ferrell, S.L., and L. Sanders. 2013. “Natural Gas Issues and Policy Options.” Plone Site.

Forbes, S.M., F. Almendra, and M.S. Ziegler. 2009. “CCS and Community Engagement.”

Fu, J., Y. Liu, and F. Sun. 2021. “Identifying and Regulating the Environmental Risks in the Development and Utilization of Natural Gas as a Low-Carbon Energy Source.” Frontiers in Energy Research 9: 28. doi:10.3389/fenrg.2021.638105.

Fuhrman, J., H. McJeon, S. Doney, W. Shobe, and A. Clarens. 2019. “From Zero to Hero? Why Integrated Assessment Modeling of Negative Emissions Technologies Is Hard and How We Can Do Better.” Frontiers in Climate, December. doi:

Gentile, N. 2015. “Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Reform.” Center for American Progress.

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., A.Y. Hoekstra, and R. Bosman. 2018. “The Blue and Grey Water Footprint of Construction Materials: Steel, Cement and Glass.” Water Resources and Industry 19 (June): 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.wri.2017.11.002.

Gies, E. 2017. “The Real Cost of Energy.” Nature 551 (7682):S145–47. doi:10.1038/d41586-017-07510-3.

Global Newswire. 2021. “Outlook on the Caustic Potash Global Market to 2026—by Form, Grade, End-Use and Region.”

Groundwork USA. 2021. “Best Practices for Meaningful Community Engagement: Tips for Engaging Historically Underrepresented Populations in Visioning and Planning.”

Gunningham, N., R.A. Kagan, and D. Thornton. 2004. “Social License and Environmental Protection: Why Businesses Go Beyond Compliance.” Law & Social Inquiry 29 (2): 307–41. doi:10.1111/j.1747-4469.2004.tb00338.x.

Hanna, R., A. Abdulla, Y. Xu, and D.G. Victor. 2021. “Emergency Deployment of Direct Air Capture as a Response to the Climate Crisis.” Nature Communications 12 (1): 368. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20437-0.

Hays, K. 2021. “Factbox: US Export PVC Prices Hit Fresh All-Time High on Ida Fallout.” September 10.

Holmes, G. 2021. “Personal Communication—Environmental Impacts of DAC.”

Holmes, G., and D.W. Keith. 2012. “An Air–Liquid Contactor for Large-Scale Capture of CO2 from Air.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 370 (1974): 4380–4403. doi:10.1098/rsta.2012.0137.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2018. Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5°C above Pre-industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty. Edited by V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, et al. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization.

Johansson, L., S. Zahirovic, and R.D. Müller. 2018. “The Interplay between the Eruption and Weathering of Large Igneous Provinces and the Deep-Time Carbon Cycle.” Geophysical Research Letters 45 (11): 5380–89. doi:10.1029/2017GL076691.

Johnson, S. 2020. “Can Oil and Carbon Mix? Using the ‘Amount Realized’ Analysis from Frey v. Amoco Pr . Amoco Production Co. for Royalty Payments on Carbon Dioxide Sequestration.” LSU Journal of Energy Law and Resources.

Johnston, J., and L. Cushing. 2020. “Chemical Exposures, Health, and Environmental Justice in Communities Living on the Fenceline of Industry.” Current Environmental Health Reports 7 (1): 48–57. doi:10.1007/s40572-020-00263-8.

Joppa, L., A. Luers, E. Willmott, S.J. Friedmann, S.P. Hamburg, and R. Broze. 2021. “Microsoft’s Million-Tonne CO2—Removal Purchase—Lessons for Net Zero.” Nature 597 (7878): 629–32. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02606-3.

Kaplan, T., C. Buckley, and B. Plumer. 2021. “U.S. Bans Imports of Some Chinese Solar Materials Tied to Forced Labor.” The New York Times, June 24 sec. Business.

Katsonis, M. 2019. “Designing Effective Public Engagement: The Case Study of Future Melbourne 2026.” Policy Design and Practice 2 (2): 215–28. doi:10.1080/25741292.2019.1621032.

Keith, D.W., G. Holmes, D.S. Angelo, and K. Heidel. 2018. “A Process for Capturing CO2 from the Atmosphere.” Joule 2 (8). 1573–94. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2018.05.006.

Kosar, U., V. Suarez, G. Amador, M. Glicksman, C. Holness, R. Jacobson, L.D. Simonelli, and T. Steeves. 2021. “Removing Forward: Centering Equity and Justice in a Carbon-Removing Future.” Carbon180, 62.

Larsen, J., W. Herndon, and G. Hiltbrand. 2020. “The Employment Opportunities Associated with Scale-Up of Direct Air Capture (DAC) Technology in the US,” 28.

Levenda, A.M., I. Behrsin, and F. Disano. 2021. “Renewable Energy for Whom? A Global Systematic Review of the Environmental Justice Implications of Renewable Energy Technologies.” Energy Research and Social Science 71 (January): 101837. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2020.101837.

Livermore Lab Foundation. 2021. Carbon Capture and Sequestration in California: Regional Insights and Community Attitudes—March 2021.

Lowe, M. 2012. Subsidence in Sedimentary Basins Due to Groundwater Withdrawal for Geothermal Energy Development. Utah Geological Survey. doi:10.34191/OFR-601.

Macknick, J., R. Newmark, G. Heath, and K.C. Hallett. 2011. “Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies.” NREL/TP-6A20-50900, 1009674. doi:10.2172/1009674.

Madhu, K., S. Pauliuk, S. Dhathri, and F. Creutzig. 2021. “Understanding Environmental Trade-offs and Resource Demand of Direct Air Capture Technologies through Comparative Life-Cycle Assessment.” Nature Energy, October, 1–10. doi:10.1038/s41560-021-00922-6.

McDonnell, T. 2020. “Can Farmland Fix Solar Power’s Real Estate Problem?” Quartz. 2020.

McQueen, N., M.J. Desmond, R.H. Socolow, P. Psarras, and J. Wilcox. 2021. “Natural Gas vs. Electricity for Solvent-Based Direct Air Capture.” Frontiers in Climate, January. doi:10.3389/fclim.2020.618644.

McQueen, N., K.V. Gomes, C. McCormick, K. Blumanthal, M. Pisciotta, and J. Wilcox. 2021. “A Review of Direct Air Capture (DAC): Scaling Up Commercial Technologies and Innovating for the Future.”

McQueen, N., P. Psarras, H. Pilorgé, S. Liguori, J. He, M. Yuan, C.M. Woodall, et al. 2020. “Cost Analysis of Direct Air Capture and Sequestration Coupled to Low-Carbon Thermal Energy in the United States.” Environmental Science & Technology 54 (12): 7542–51. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c00476.

Merrill, D. 2021. “U.S. Needs a Lot More Land to Go Green by 2050.”, 2021.

Mohai, P., D. Pellow, and J.T. Roberts. 2009. “Environmental Justice.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 34 (1): 405–30. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-082508-094348.

Moser, S.C., and C. Pike. 2015. “Community Engagement on Adaptation: Meeting a Growing Capacity Need.” Urban Climate, Building Capacity for Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas, 14 (December): 111–15. doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2015.06.006.

Mulligan, J., A. Rudee, K. Lebling, K. Levin, J. Anderson, and B. Christensen. 2020. “CarbonShot: Federal Policy Options for Carbon Removal in the United States.”

NASEM (The National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine). 2019. Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda. doi:10.17226/25259.

NETL (National Energy Technology Laboratory). n.d. “Oxy-combustion.” Accessed September 21, 2021.

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory). n.d. “Geothermal Prospector.” Accessed October 12, 2021.

OEHHA (Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). 2020. “CalEnviroScreen.” Text.

Pellow, D.N. 2016. “Environmental Justice and Rural Studies: A Critical Conversation and Invitation to Collaboration.” Journal of Rural Studies 47 (October): 381–86. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.06.018.

Pfister, S., P. Bayer, A. Koehler, and S. Hellweg. 2011. “Environmental Impacts of Water Use in Global Crop Production: Hotspots and Trade-offs with Land Use.” Environmental Science and Technology 45 (13): 5761–68. American Chemical Society: 5761–68. doi:10.1021/es1041755.

Raffetti, E., M. Treccani, and F. Donato. 2019. “Cement Plant Emissions and Health Effects in the General Population: A Systematic Review.” Chemosphere 218 (March): 211–22. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.11.088.

Repmann, M., O. Schelske, D. Colijn, and P. Samendra. 2021. “Swiss-Re-Institute-Expertise-Publication-Insurance-Rationale-for-Carbon-Removal-Solutions.Pdf.”

Seddon, N., A. Chausson, P. Berry, C.A.J. Girardin, A. Smith, and B. Turner. 2020. “Understanding the Value and Limits of Nature-Based Solutions to Climate Change and Other Global Challenges.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 375. doi:10.1098/rstb.2019.0120.

Sektiawan, A., G.A. Prasetyo, D.P. Adli, and E. Yuantoro. 2016. “Subsidence: Causes, Effects, and Mitigations in Geothermal Field.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 42 (September). IOP Publishing: 012022. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/42/1/012022.

Shellenberger, M. 2018. “If Solar Panels Are So Clean, Why Do They Produce So Much Toxic Waste?” Forbes, May 23.

Stevens, L., B. Anderson, C. Cowan, K. Colton, and D. Johnson. 2017. “The Footprint of Energy: Land Use of U.S. Electricity Production.”

Tawalbeh, M., A. Al-Othman, F. Kafiah, E. Abdelsalam, F. Almomani, and M. Alkasrawi. 2021. “Environmental Impacts of Solar Photovoltaic Systems: A Critical Review of Recent Progress and Future Outlook.” Science of the Total Environment, March. doi:

Terlouw, T., K. Treyer, C. Bauer, and M. Mazzotti. 2021. “Life Cycle Assessment of Direct Air Carbon Capture and Storage with Low-Carbon Energy Sources.” Environmental Science and Technology 55 (16): 11397–411. doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c03263.

UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). 2013a. “Environmental Impacts of Solar Power.”

UCS. 2013b. “Environmental Impacts of Wind Power.”

UCS. 2013c. “Water-Smart Power.” July 3

Urban Sustainability Directors Network. 2021. “Urban Sustainability Directors Network.”

U.S. Department of State. 2021. “The Long-Term Strategy of the United States, Pathways to Net-Zero Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 2050.”

U.S. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2006. “Advanced Chloralkali Technology.” 2006.

U.S. DOE. 2012. “Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems.”

U.S. DOE. 2021. “Creating Equity in Energy for People of Color.”

U.S. DOE. n.d. “Geothermal Power Plants—Minimizing Land Use and Impact.”

U.S. EIA (U.S. Energy Information Administration). 2020. “Geothermal Energy and the Environment.”

U.S. EIA. 2021. “Annual Energy Outlook 2021.”

Emanuel, R.E., M.A. Caretta, L. Rivers III, and P. Vasudevan. 2021. “Natural Gas Gathering and Transmission Pipelines and Social Vulnerability in the United States.” GeoHealth 5 (6): e2021GH000442. doi:10.1029/2021GH000442.

U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2015. “Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator.” Data and Tools. August 28, 2015.

U.S. EPA. 2020. “EJSCREEN: Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool.” Collections and Lists.

U.S. EPA. 2021a. “Environmental Justice.” Collections and Lists.

U.S. EPA. 2021b. “Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2019.” Reports and Assessments. February 3.

U.S. EPA. 2014. “Creating Equitable, Healthy, and Sustainable Communities.” Reports and Assessments. January 7.

USGS (United States Geological Survey). 2013. “National Assessment of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources.”

USGS. 2021a. “Cement.”

USGS. 2021b. “Iron and Steel.”

U.S. Senate. 2021. “HR 3684.”

Uzor, L. 2021. “Personal Communication Environmental Impacts of DAC.”

Uzor, L. 2022. Call with Climeworks.

Walker, G. 2009. “Beyond Distribution and Proximity: Exploring the Multiple Spatialities of Environmental Justice.” Antipode 41 (4): 614–36. doi:

White House. 2021a. “White House Environmental Justice Advisory Council Justice40 Climate and Economic Justice Screening Tool and Executive Order 12898 Revisions.”

White House. 2021b. “FACT SHEET: The American Jobs Plan.” March 31.

WHO (World Health Organization). 1999. “Guidelines for Community Noise.”

Williams, C., M. Reed, R. Mariner, J. DeAngelo, and P. Galanis. 2008. “USGS Fact Sheet 2008–3082: Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States.”

World Bank. 2017. The Growing Role of Minerals and Metals for a Low Carbon Future. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi:10.1596/28312.

Xu, Y., J. Li, Q. Tan, A.L. Peters, and C. Yang. 2018. “Global Status of Recycling Waste Solar Panels: A Review.” Waste Management 75 (May): 450–58. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2018.01.036.

Zhang, Y., R. Gautam, S. Pandey, M. Omara, J.D. Maasakkers, P. Sadavarte, D. Lyon, et al. 2020. “Quantifying Methane Emissions from the Largest Oil-Producing Basin in the United States from Space.” Science Advances 6 (17): eaaz5120. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaz5120.

Start reading